In the mythology of the ancient Greeks - the main sea god, one of the three first gods of Olympus, along with the ruler of the underworld Hades and the thunderer Zeus. Poseidon is considered responsible not only for the waters and seas, but also for earthquakes, and also for horse breeding. Leaving his palace, Poseidon, according to the ideas of the Hellenes, rode in golden clothing on a chariot drawn by golden-maned horses with bronze hooves, around which the inhabitants of the water abyss jumped. The symbols of the god Poseidon were a trident, a bull, a dolphin, and a horse.
Poseidon is the brother of Zeus and Hades, as well as the goddesses Hera, Demeter, and Hestia. Having defeated the titans, the young gods began to divide the world, and Poseidon got the sea element. Before Poseidon, the ancient local deities - Nereus, Ocean, and others - were responsible for the sea. The hero eventually pushed them back. Poseidon has a difficult character. With an angry disposition, vindictiveness, and rage, the hero resembles the element he has embodied. For example, Poseidon ruthlessly pursues Odysseus, who insulted God by depriving his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, from sight. The face of Poseidon in antique statues and images is given mainly excited and angry expressions, which is easy to see from the photo of the statue of Poseidon, which is kept in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. But, for example, Zeus is usually portrayed as calm. Ancient Greek artists portrayed the god Poseidon as a regal-looking man, with a thick beard and hair. In frescoes, vase paintings and statues, his right leg usually stands on a dolphin or a rock, or Poseidon rides accompanied by sea monsters on a chariot, bull or horse. His face usually expresses anger and excitement (as opposed to Zeus' Olympic serenity).
The habitat of Poseidon is a luxurious palace at the bottom of the sea, where God lives with his wife, a Nereid named Amphitrite, and a son born from her named Triton. The retinue and environment of Poseidon are Nereids (sea nymphs, which can be compared with Slavic mermaids), hippocampus (sea horses with fish tails), as well as other inhabitants of the sea.
Like other gods of Ancient Greece, Poseidon was fertile and loving. Among the lovers and wives of the sea god, there are about two dozen names. A huge number of characters in ancient Greek mythology are called children of Poseidon from goddesses and mortals. The goddess Demeter, after she met with the god in the guise of a mare, gave birth to a horse named Arion from Poseidon.
The monstrous Lamia is considered the daughter of Poseidon. Jealous Hera turned this heroine into a beast for the fact that she awakened a love interest in her uncle Zeus. It is believed that Lamia eats people, and in order to fall asleep, he takes out his own eyes and puts them in a bowl. Cyclops Polyphemus, blinded by Odysseus, gave birth to Poseidon the sea nymph Foos. The clan and kings of the mythical Atlantis are directly derived from Poseidon.
The main feature of the god of the seas Poseidon in ancient Greek myths is an indestructible and stormy force, one that the water element constantly and clearly manifests. The Greeks dedicated the stormy month of the year to this god - Poseidon (before the winter solstice). Poseidon's offspring (Polyphemus, Antaeus, Busiris, Procrustes, etc.) are also wild and unbridled. But, sending storms and crashes, Poseidon calms the sea. He is the patron saint of navigation, who sends good luck to all other activities related to the sea (trade, fishing, sea battles).
From the blows of Poseidon's trident, the earth vibrates and cracks, gorges and valleys are formed, and new islands appear on the sea. During the struggle of the gods with the giants, Poseidon defeated the giant Ephialtos, throwing the island of Nisir on him. But with destruction, he also unites the deeds of creation. Poseidon is credited with building the copper door of the abyss of Tartarus and the erection of the walls of Troy under King Laomedon. Since fresh waters give the earth fertility, the god Poseidon was often associated with the productive force of nature, he was considered the patron saint of the family.
He himself, in addition to Amphitrite, was in marital relations with many nymphs and had from them, numerous heroic descendants. Pelius, Neleus, Hippophoon - the sons of the god Poseidon - were fed with the milk of his sacred animal - a horse. With the help of Poseidon's horses, the famous hero Pelops defeated the cruel king Enomai.
God Poseidon was most revered in areas along the shores of the sea, lakes and rivers, in places with gorges and traces of earthquakes (the ancient Greeks believed that earthquakes are caused by vibrations of water penetrating into caves and underground cavities). Temples of Poseidon were erected most often on capes, isthmuses, and in coastal cities. The Thessalians believed that the Tempe Valley was created in their country by the blow of Poseidon's trident.
Together with other ancient Greek gods, Poseidon participated in the battle with the Titans. It was he who made the copper door, thanks to which the defeated titans were locked in Tartarus. After the battle with the Titans, the Olympian gods divided the world among themselves. Zeus received the sky, Hades - the underworld, and Poseidon - the sea. The land remained in the common possession of the gods, although Poseidon from time to time challenged other Olympians for the exclusive right to possess a particular area.